Spanish Present Subjunctive

Welcome to our grammar lesson about the Spanish Present Subjunctive (“Presente del Subjuntivo”)

We use the Present Subjunctive in some types of sentences that express subjectivity: desire, doubt, emotion…

A couple of sentences with verbs in Spanish Present Subjunctive
A couple of sentences with verbs in Present Subjunctive (the ones in green)

This lesson will teach you everything about the Present Subjunctive: how to conjugate verbs and how to use it, providing example sentences.

At the end you’ll find a Quiz and Exercises for practice.

Conjugation of verbs in Present Subjunctive

Endings

First we need to learn the endings for each person.

Luckily, these endings apply to both Regular and Irregular Verbs:

Subject PronounVerbs ending in -ARVerbs ending in -ER, -IR
yo-e-a
-es-as
él-e-a
nosotros-emos-amos
vosotros-éis-áis
ellos-en-an


Regular verbs

Here are 3 regular verbs in Present Subjunctive, with the endings we just learned:

 hablarcomervivir
yohablecomaviva
hablescomasvivas
élhablecomaviva
nosotroshablemoscomamosvivamos
vosotroshabléiscomáisviváis
elloshablencomanvivan


Irregular verbs

Identifying irregular verbs is easy: any verb with an irregular “yo” form in Present Indicative (the “normal” Present), is irregular in Present Subjunctive.

Irregular verbs in Present Subjunctive have the same endings as the regulars, but the stem has some irregularity.

Irregular verbs can be grouped into different types:

Types of Irregular verbs

1) Verbs ending in -AR / -ER where e becomes ie for the person “yo” in Present Indicative, has that same irregularity in Present Subjunctive for all persons, except “nosotros” and “vosotros”:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
pensarpiensopiense, pienses, piense, pensemos, penséis, piensen
perderpierdopierda, pierdas, pierda, perdamos, perdáis, pierdan



2) Verbs ending in -IR where e becomes ie for the person “yo” in Present Indicative, has that same irregularity in Present Subjunctive for all persons, except “nosotros” and “vosotros”, where e becomes i:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
preferirprefieroprefiera, prefieras, prefiera, prefiramos, prefiráis, prefieran
sentirsientosienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintáis, sientan



3) Verbs where e becomes i for the person “yo” in Present Indicative, has that same irregularity in Present Subjunctive, for all persons:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
pedirpidopida, pidas, pida, pidamos, pidáis, pidan
repetirrepitorepita, repitas, repita, repitamos, repitáis, repitan



4) Verbs where o becomes ue for the person “yo” in Present Indicative, has that same irregularity in Present Subjunctive, for all persons except “nosotros” and “vosotros”:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
contarcuentocuente, cuentes, cuente, contemos, contéis, cuenten
poderpuedopueda, puedas, pueda, podamos, podáis, puedan



5) An exception to case 4). For the verbs “dormir” and “morir”, apart from o becoming ue for the other persons, o becomes u for “nosotros” and “vosotros”:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
dormirduermoduerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, durmáis, duerman
morirmueromuera, mueras, muera, muramos, muráis, mueran



6) For the verb “jugar”, u becomes ue for all persons except “nosotros” and “vosotros”. Also, “g” becomes “gu” for all persons:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
jugarjuegojuegue, juegues, juegue, juguemos, juguéis, jueguen



7) Verbs where c becomes zc for the person “yo” in Present Indicative, have that same zc for all persons:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
conocerconozcoconozca, conozcas, conozca, conozcamos, conozcáis, conozcan
traducirtraduzcotraduzca, traduzcas, traduzca, traduzcamos, traduzcáis, traduzcan



8) Verbs whose “yo” form in Present Indicative ends in -go, form the Present Subjunctive with ga:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
hacerhagohaga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hais, hagan
tenertengotenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, tenis, tengan



9) For verbs ending in -UIR, i becomes y:

 "yo" form in Present Indicative"yo" form in Present Indicative
influirinfluyoinfluya, influyas, influya, influyamos, influyáis, influyan
intuirintuyointuya, intuyas, intuya, intuyamos, intuyáis, intuyan


10) Very Irregular Verbs

Finally, here are 7 very irregular verbs that don’t fit into any of the previous types:

darestarir

esté
vaya
des
estés
vayas

esté
vaya
demos
estemos
vayamos
deis
estéis
vayáis
den
estén
vayan

saberserver
sepaseavea
sepasseasveas
sepaseavea
sepamosseamosveamos
sepáisseáisveáis
sepanseanvean

haber
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan


Spelling Changes

Apart from being regular or irregular, a verb might also present spelling changes at the end of its stem, for pronunciation reasons.

For example, take the verb “marcar”. That verb is fundamentally regular, but it still requires a change for all persons: the “c” must become “qu”, so that it keeps the “k” sound and maintains a consistent pronunciation.

Here are some examples of spelling changes:

coger (g → j)coja, cojas, coja, cojamos, cojáis, cojan
marcar (c → qu)marque, marques, marque, marquemos, marquéis, marquen
pagar (g → gu)pague, pagues, pague, paguemos, paguéis, paguen
seguir (gu → g)siga, sigas, siga, sigamos, sigáis, sigan
utilizar (z → c)utilice, utilices, utilice, utilicemos, utilicéis, utilicen
vencer (c→ z)venza, venzas, venza, venzamos, venzáis, venzan

Uses of the Present Subjunctive

We use the Present Subjunctive in some sentences that express subjectivity: desire, doubt, emotion…

Most times the Present Subjunctive appears in dependent clauses after a relative pronoun, usually “que”.

Here are the most frequent types of sentences where we use the Present Subjunctive:

1) After verbs that express a wish or preference (“querer, esperar, necesitar, desear, preferir, tener ganas de…”), when they are in Present Tense and followed by the relative pronoun “que”, then the next verb in the dependent clause is in Present Subjunctive:

Queremos que estudies más.
We want that you study more.

Espero que Miguel venga a mi cumpleaños.
I hope Miguel comes to my birthday.

Ellos prefieren que yo no diga nada.
They prefer that I don’t say anything.


2) In sentences where we wish something to someone starting directly with “que”, the next verb is in Present Subjunctive:

Que tengas buen viaje.
Have a nice trip!

Que lo paséis bien.
You guys have fun!


3) After “ojalá” or “ojalá que”, when they express a wish that seems realistic to fulfill, the next verb is in Present Subjunctive:

Ojalá ganemos el partido.
Let’s hope we win the match.

Ojalá que ellos tomen la decisión correcta.
Let’s hope they make the right choice.


4) After verbs that express a feeling or personal taste (“gustar, interesar, sorprender, preocupar, molestar, dar miedo…”) when they are in Present Tense and followed by the relative pronoun “que”, then the next verb is in Present Subjunctive:

No me gusta que hables así.
I don’t like that you speak that way.

Nos da miedo que nos ataquen.
We are scared that they might attack us.


5) After these phrases that express a degree of probability: “posiblemente, probablemente, tal vez, quizás, puede que, es posible que, es probable que”, the next verb can be in Present Subjunctive:

Quizás vayamos a Ecuador en verano.
Maybe we’ll go to Ecuador in the Summer.

Es posible que Juan y Pablo nos llamen.
It’s possible that Juan and Pablo call us.


6) After these expressions that express disbelief or doubt: “No creer que, no pensar que, dudar que”, when they are in Present Tense, then the next verb is in Present Subjunctive:

El director no cree que eso sea importante.
The director doesn’t think that’s important.

Dudo que compremos el coche.
I doubt we’ll buy the car.


7) After expressions that assess or value something, using this structure: es + adjective + que…

Es bueno que vosotros digáis la verdad.
It’s good for you guys to tell the truth.

Es importante que sepamos la verdad.
It’s important for us to know the truth.


8) After verbs in Present Tense that express a plea, an order or an advice (“pedir, rogar, ordenar, aconsejar, prohibir…”) when they are in Present Tense and followed by the relative pronoun “que”, then the next verb is in Present Subjunctive:

Te aconsejo que lo investigues.
I advise you to investigate it.

Mis padres me prohiben que salga de noche.
My parent’s prohibit that I go out at night.


9) After “para que” and “a fin de que”, which express motivation:

Te regalo esta tele para que veas tu serie favorita.
I give you this TV so that you can watch your favorite series.


10) After “cuando”, only when it introduces a future event that is expected to happen, that future event is in Present Subjunctive:

Llámame cuando llegues al hotel.
Call me when you arrive at the hotel.

Cuando terminéis el libro, lo comentaremos.
When you guys finish the book, we’ll talk about it.


11) After “hasta que”, when it introduces a future event:

No pagaré el ordenador hasta que funcione.
I won’t pay for the computer until it works.


12) After “antes de que” and “después de que” referring to future events:

Los niños estudian antes de que sus amigos lleguen.
The children study before their friends arrive.

No pises el suelo después de que yo friegue.
Don’t step on the floor after I mop.


13) After these expressions that point to a necessary condition: “siempre que, a condición de que, siempre y cuando”.

Puedes ir a la fiesta siempre que lleves ropa elegante.
You can go to the party as long as you wear elegant clothes.

Siempre y cuando seas amable, la gente te tratará bien.
As long as you are nice, people will treat you well.


14) After these expressions that point to an hypothetical impediment that can cause something not to happen: “salvo que, a no ser que”.

Cocinaré carne, a no ser que seáis vegetarianos.
I will cook meat, unless you guys are vegetarian.


15) After these expressions, when they point to a hypothetical obstacle to something else that ends up happening anyway: “aunque, a pesar de que”.

Aunque no quieras, iremos a ver a mi madre.
Even if you don’t want, we’ll go see my mother.


16) After the relative pronouns “que, donde, quien”, indicating the desired qualities of something or someone.

Busco un piso que tenga 3 habitaciones.
I’m looking for a flat that has 3 rooms.

Queremos vivir en una zona donde haya supermercados.
We want to live in an area where there are supermarkets.

Queremos una compañera de piso que no fume.
We want a flatmate that doesn’t smoke.


17) In phrases that express uncertainty or leave a decision to another person, that in English tend to include words like “whatever”, “however”…:

Podemos ir al cine o al teatro, lo que sea.
We can go to the movies or to the theater, whatever.

Lo que tú digas.
Whatever you say.

Como ellos quieran.
However they want.

Practice

Quiz

First, take this short Quiz about the Spanish Present Subjunctive:


Exercise 1

Conjugate the following verbs in Present Subjunctive for the given person.

We have included all types of regular and irregular verbs taught in this lesson:

yo ___ 1.(trabajar)
tú ___ 2.(comprender)
él ___ 3.(pensar)
nosotros ___ 4.(sentir)
vosotros ___ 5.(repetir)
ellos ___ 6.(contar)
yo ___ 7.(dormir)
___ 8.(jugar)
él ___ 9.(conocer)
nosotros ___ 10.(tener)
vosotros ___ 11.(influir)
ellos ___ 12.(ser)

Solutions:
1) trabaje
2) comprendas
3) piense
4) sintamos
5) repitáis
6) cuenten
7) duerma
8) juegues
9) conozca
10) tengamos
11) influyáis
12) sean


Exercise 2

In the following sentences, fill the gaps conjugating the verbs in brackets in Present Subjunctive:

Buscamos un profesor que ___ 1.(saber) francés y alemán.
We are looking for a teacher who knows French and German.

Antes de que tú me ___ 2.(preguntar), voy a contártelo todo.
Before you ask me, I’m going to tell you everything.

Cuando nosotros ___ 3.(hablar) bien español, haremos un viaje a Chile.
When we speak Spanish well, we will take a trip to Chile.

Es importante que vosotros ___ 4.(poner) los libros en la estantería correcta.
It is important that you guys put the books on the correct shelf.

¿Quieres que te ___ 5.(llamar, yo) o prefieres que te ___ 6.(mandar, yo) un mensaje?
Do you want me to call you or do you prefer me to send you a message?

No creo que ellos ___ 7.(comprender) el problema.
I don’t think they understand the problem.

Ojalá ___ 8.(hacer, tú) cosas muy interesantes y ___ 9.(aprender, tú) mucho.
Let’s hope you do very interesting things and learn a lot.

Solutions:
1) sepa
2) preguntes
3) hablemos
4) pongáis
5) llame
6) mande
7) comprendan
8) hagas
9) aprendas