Spanish Past Participle – All About this Verb Form and Its Uses

Spanish Past Participle

The Past Participle (“Participio”) is a verb form in Spanish.

The Past Participle is important because it plays a role in all Spanish Perfect Tenses (for example, the Present Perfect). And it can also be used as an Adjective. Plus, it’s super easy to learn!

In this lesson we will learn how to form and use the Past Participle, going through the following points:


1. The Spanish Past Participle: Forms

Let’s start with good news: For each verb, there is only one Past Participle.

Most verbs have a regular Past Participle, but there are some irregulars too. Let’s learn both the regular and irregular forms:


Regular Past Participles: Endings “-ADO” and “-IDO”

We form Regular Past Participles by adding these endings to the verb’s stem:

  • Verbs ending in “-ar” —>  –ado
  • Verbs ending in “-er”, “-ir”  —> –ido

Here are some examples:

VerbPast Participle
hablarhablado
comercomido
vivirvivido
llamarllamado
leerleído
sentirsentido


Irregular Past Participles

Some verbs have an Irregular Past Participle and don’t follow the rule above.

Here’s a list of the most important Irregular Past Participles:

Irregular Participles
hacer → hecho
decir → dicho
ver → visto
escribir → escrito
romper → roto
poner → puesto
volver → vuelto
resolver → resuelto
satisfacer → satisfecho
descubrir → descubierto
morir → muerto

2. Uses of the Past Participle

The Past Participle as part of all Perfect Tenses

The first use of the Past Participle is playing a role in all Perfect Tenses in Spanish, which are listed here:

All those tenses are constructed with 2 words, with the Past Participle always being the second word.

Here are some example sentences where we can find the Past Participle playing a role in some of those Perfect Tenses:

Hoy he trabajado mucho.
I’ve worked a lot today (Present Perfect)

Esta semana no hemos quedado.
We haven’t met this week. (Present Perfect)

No habíais hecho las camas.
You guys had not made the beds. (Past Perfect)

En 2025 habré terminado mis estudios.
By 2025 I will have finished my studies. (Future Perfect)

Me alegro de que hayas comido bien.
I’m happy you’ve eaten well (Present Perfect Subjunctive)


The Past Participle as an Adjective

We can also use Past Participles as Adjectives. When used as an Adjective, the Past Participle needs to match the noun it is related to, in both gender and number. That means in some cases we need to change its ending a little bit.

Example sentences:

La puerta está cerrada.
The door is closed. (feminine singular)

El armario está cerrado.
The closet is closed. (masculine singular)

Las puertas parecen cerradas.
The doors seem closed. (feminine plural)

Los armarios parecen cerrados.
The closets seem closed. (masculine plural)


3. Practice: A Quiz

Take this short Quiz to test your knowledge about the Spanish Past Participle!: