The Past Participle (“Participio”) is a verb form in Spanish.
The Past Participle is important because it plays a role in all Spanish Perfect Tenses (for example, the Present Perfect). And it can also be used as an Adjective. Plus, it’s super easy to learn!
In this lesson we will learn how to form and use the Past Participle, going through the following points:
1. The Spanish Past Participle: Forms
Let’s start with good news: For each verb, there is only one Past Participle.
Most verbs have a regular Past Participle, but there are some irregulars too. Let’s learn both the regular and irregular forms:
Regular Past Participles: Endings “-ADO” and “-IDO”
We form Regular Past Participles by adding these endings to the verb’s stem:
- Verbs ending in “-ar” —> –ado
- Verbs ending in “-er”, “-ir” —> –ido
Here are some examples:
Irregular Past Participles
Some verbs have an Irregular Past Participle and don’t follow the rule above.
Here’s a list of the most important Irregular Past Participles:
|hacer → hecho|
|decir → dicho|
|ver → visto|
|escribir → escrito|
|romper → roto|
|poner → puesto|
|volver → vuelto|
|resolver → resuelto|
|satisfacer → satisfecho|
|descubrir → descubierto|
|morir → muerto|
2. Uses of the Past Participle
The Past Participle as part of all Perfect Tenses
The first use of the Past Participle is playing a role in all Perfect Tenses in Spanish, which are listed here:
- Present Perfect
- Past Perfect
- Preterite Perfect
- Future Perfect
- Conditional Perfect
- Present Perfect Subjunctive
- Past Perfect Subjunctive
- Future Perfect Subjunctive
All those tenses are constructed with 2 words, with the Past Participle always being the second word.
Here are some example sentences where we can find the Past Participle playing a role in some of those Perfect Tenses:
Hoy he trabajado mucho.
I’ve worked a lot today (Present Perfect)
Esta semana no hemos quedado.
We haven’t met this week. (Present Perfect)
No habíais hecho las camas.
You guys had not made the beds. (Past Perfect)
En 2025 habré terminado mis estudios.
By 2025 I will have finished my studies. (Future Perfect)
Me alegro de que hayas comido bien.
I’m happy you’ve eaten well (Present Perfect Subjunctive)
The Past Participle as an Adjective
We can also use Past Participles as Adjectives. When used as an Adjective, the Past Participle needs to match the noun it is related to, in both gender and number. That means in some cases we need to change its ending a little bit.
La puerta está cerrada.
The door is closed. (feminine singular)
El armario está cerrado.
The closet is closed. (masculine singular)
Las puertas parecen cerradas.
The doors seem closed. (feminine plural)
Los armarios parecen cerrados.
The closets seem closed. (masculine plural)
3. Practice: A Quiz
Take this short Quiz to test your knowledge about the Spanish Past Participle!: