Spanish Past Participle

Past Participle in Spanish - Learn and Practice

Welcome to our grammar lesson about the Spanish Past Participle (“El participio”).

This is an important verb form that has several uses.

Two sentences with Spanish past participles
Two sentences with past participles (in green)

This lesson will teach you everything about the past participle: how to form it and how to use it, providing example sentences.

At the end you’ll find a Quiz and Exercises for practice.

How to form the Past Participle

For each verb, there is only one Past Participle.

Let’s study how we form it, both the regular and irregular cases.

Regular past participles

Most verbs have a regular Past Participle.

We form it by attaching an ending to the verb’s stem:

  • For verbs ending in -ar —> -ado
  • For verbs ending in -er, -ir  —> -ido


Examples:

VerbPast Participle
hablarhablado
comercomido
vivirvivido
llamarllamado
leerleído
sentirsentido


Irregular past participles

Here are the most frequent verbs with an irregular Past Participle:

VerbPast Participle
hacerhecho
decirdicho
vervisto
escribirescrito
romperroto
ponerpuesto
volvervuelto
resolverresuelto
satisfacersatisfecho
descubrirdescubierto
morirmuerto

Uses of the past participle

Here are its most important uses:

As part of all perfect tenses

In Spanish, all perfect tenses consist of 2 words:

  • The first word is the verb haber, conjugated in some tense.
  • The second word is the Past Participle of the verb expressing the action.

The perfect tenses in Spanish are:


Examples:

Yo he trabajado mucho hoy.
I’ve worked a lot today. (Present Perfect)

Esta semana no hemos quedado.
This week we haven’t met. (Present Perfect)

No habíais hecho las camas.
You guys had not made the beds. (Past Perfect)

Para 2025 habré terminado mis estudios.
By 2025 I will have finished my studies. (Future Perfect)

Me alegro de que hayas comido bien.
I’m glad you’ve eaten well. (Present Perfect Subjunctive)


As an adjective

We we use it as an adjective, the Past Participle needs to match the gender and number of the noun it is connected with.

That means we need to adapt its ending.

Here are some examples using the Past Participle of the verb “cerrar” (“cerrado”). Notice that we adapt its ending to the gender and number of the noun:

El armario está cerrado.
The closet is closed. (masculine singular)

La puerta está cerrada.
The door is closed. (feminine singular)

Las puertas parecen cerradas.
The doors seem closed. (feminine plural)

Los armarios parecen cerrados.
The closets seem closed. (masculine plural)


After “ser” to form the passive voice

To form the passive voice, we place the Past Participle right after the verb “ser”.

Once again, here the Past Participle needs to match the gender and number of the subject.

— Click here to learn more about the passive voice–

Examples:

La canción es cantada.
The song is sung.

Los edificios son construidos por la compañía.
The buildings are built by the company.

Practice

Quiz

Take this short Quiz to test your knowledge about the Past Participle:


Exercise 1

Form the Past Participle of the following verbs:

1) escuchar
2) salir
3) contar
4) tener
5) hacer
6) decir
7) ver
8) romper

Solutions:
1) escuchado
2) salido
3) contado
4) tenido
5) hecho
6) dicho
7) visto
8) roto


Exercise 2

In this exercise, we practice the Past Participle as part of a perfect tense: the Present Perfect.

Fill the gaps with the Past Participle of the verbs in brackets:

1) Nosotros hemos __ (cerrar) las puertas.
We have closed the doors.

2) Yo no he __ (repasar) la lección.
I haven’t reviewed the lesson.

3) Hemos __ (dormir) muchas horas.
We have slept many hours.

4) Gonzalo ha __ (hacer) la cama.
Gonzalo has made the bed.

5) ¿Vosotros habéis __ (ver) la película?
Have you guys watched the movie?

Solutions:
1) cerrado
2) repasado
3) dormido
4) hecho
5) visto


Exercise 3

In this exercise we practice the Past Participle as an adjective.

Fill the gaps with the Past Participle of the verbs in brackets, adapting its ending if needed, so that it matches the gender and number of the noun it is connected with.

1) Las puertas están __ (cerrar).
The doors are closed.

2) Los libros están están __ (abrir).
The books are open.

3) La cama está __ (hacer).
The bed is made.

4) La televisión está __ (romper).
The television is broken.

5) El desayuno está __ (preparar).
The breakfast is prepared.

Solutions:
1) cerradas
2) abiertos
3) hecha
4) rota
5) preparado

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