Spanish Past Participle

Past Participle in Spanish - Learn and Practice

Welcome to our grammar lesson about the Spanish Past Participle (“El participio”).

Two sentences with Spanish past participles
Two sentences with past participles (in green)

This lesson will teach you everything about the Past Participle: how to form it and how to use it, providing example sentences.

At the end you’ll find a Quiz and Exercises for practice.

How to form the past participle

For each verb, there is only one past participle.

Regular past participles

Most verbs have a regular past participle.

We form it by adding the following endings to the verb’s stem:

  • Verbs ending in -ar —> -ado
  • Verbs ending in -er, -ir  —> -ido


VerbRegular Past Participle

Irregular past participles

Here are the most frequent irregular past participles:

VerbIrregular Past Participle

Uses of the past participle

Here are its most important uses:

As part of all perfect tenses

All Spanish perfect tenses consist of 2 words:

  • The first word is the auxiliary verb haber, conjugated in some tense.
  • The second word is the Past Participle of the verb expressing the action.

The perfect tenses in Spanish are:


Hoy he trabajado mucho.
Today I’ve worked a lot. (Present Perfect)

Esta semana no hemos quedado.
This week we haven’t met. (Present Perfect)

No habíais hecho las camas.
You guys had not made the beds. (Past Perfect)

En 2025 habré terminado mis estudios.
By 2025 I will have finished my studies. (Future Perfect)

Me alegro de que hayas comido bien.
I’m happy that you’ve eaten well. (Present Perfect Subjunctive)

As an adjective

When used as an adjective, the past participle needs to match the gender and number of the noun it is connected with.

That means we need to adapt its ending.

Here are some examples using the past participle of “cerrar” (“cerrado”). Notice that we adapt its ending to the gender and number of the noun:

El armario está cerrado.
The closet is closed. (masculine singular)

La puerta está cerrada.
The door is closed. (feminine singular)

Las puertas parecen cerradas.
The doors seem closed. (feminine plural)

Los armarios parecen cerrados.
The closets seem closed. (masculine plural)

After “ser” to form the passive voice

To form the passive voice, we place the past participle right after the verb “ser”.

It needs to match the gender and number of the subject.

— Click here to learn more about the Passive Voice–


La canción es cantada.
The song is sung.

Los edificios son construidos por la compañía.
The buildings are built by the company.



Take this short Quiz to test your knowledge about the Spanish past participle:

Exercise 1

Form the past participle of the following verbs:

1) escuchar
2) salir
3) contar
4) tener
5) hacer
6) decir
7) ver
8) romper

1) escuchado
2) salido
3) contado
4) tenido
5) hecho
6) dicho
7) visto
8) roto

Exercise 2

In this exercise, we practice the past participle as part of a perfect tense: the Present Perfect.

Fill the gaps with the past participle of the verbs in brackets:

Nosotros hemos __ 1.(cerrar) las puertas.
We have closed the doors.

Yo no he __ 2.(repasar) la lección.
I haven’t reviewed the lesson.

Hemos __ 3.(dormir) muchas horas.
We have slept many hours.

Carmen ha __ 4.(hacer) la cama.
Carmen has made the bed.

¿Vosotros habéis __ 5.(ver) la película?
Have you guys watched the movie?

1) cerrado
2) repasado
3) dormido
4) hecho
5) visto

Exercise 3

In this exercise we practice the past participle as an adjective.

Fill the gaps with the past participle of the verbs in brackets.

Remember that the ending needs to match the gender and number of the noun it is connected with:

Las puertas están __ 1.(cerrar).
The doors are closed.

Los libros están están __ 2.(abrir).
The books are open.

La cama está __ 3.(hacer).
The bed is made.

La televisión está __ 4.(romper).
The television is broken.

El desayuno está __ 5.(preparar).
The breakfast is prepared.

1) cerradas
2) abiertos
3) hecha
4) rota
5) preparado