Spanish Present Subjunctive – Conjugation

Welcome to our lesson about the conjugation of verbs in Spanish Present Subjunctive («Presente del Subjuntivo»).

We will begin by explaining the Endings for this tense. Then we will see examples of Regular Verbs, and finally we will learn the different types of Irregular Verbs.

 

Endings in Present Subjunctive

The first thing we need to learn are the Endings for each person. This endings apply both to Regular and Irregular Verbs.

In the following table, we can find the different endings for verbs ending in «-AR», and for verbs ending in «-ER» and «-IR»:

 Verbs ending in -ARVerbs ending in -ER, -IR
yo-e-a
-es-as
él-e-a
nosotros-emos-amos
vosotros-éis-áis
ellos-en-an

 

Regular Verbs

In these three examples of Regular Verbs, we can observe the endings we just learned:

 HablarComerVivir
yohablecomaviva
hablescomasvivas
élhablecomaviva
nosotroshablemoscomamosvivamos
vosotroshabléiscomáisviváis
elloshablencomanvivan

 

Irregular Verbs

Many verbs are Irregular in Present Subjunctive, presenting small changes in the stem of some or all the persons.

What Verbs are these? We can identify them easily: they are the verbs which, in Present Indicative (the «normal» Present we learn at the beginning of any Spanish course), had some irregularity in the «yo» form.

An irregularity of the «yo» form in Present Indicative has a big influence in Present Subjunctive, as we will see now.

Also, remember that the Endings are the same as for Regular Verbs. It is in the stem where there can be small changes.

 

Types of Irregularities

1) Verbs ending in «-AR», «-ER», whose «yo» form in Present Indicative has a vowel «E» that becomes «IE», has that same irregularity in Present Subjunctive, for all persons except for «nosotros» and «vosotros»:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Pensarpiensopiense, pienses, piense, pensemos, penséis, piensen
Perderpierdopierda, pierdas, pierda, perdamos, perdáis, pierdan

 

2) Verbs ending in «IR», whose «yo» form in Present Indicative has a vowel «E» that becomes «IE», has that same irregularity in Subjunctive, for all persons except for «nosotros» and «vosotros», where «E» becomes «I»:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Preferirprefieroprefiera, prefieras, prefiera, prefiramos, prefiráis, prefieran
Sentirsientosienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintáis, sientan

 

3) Verbs whose «yo» form in Present Indicative has a vowel «E» that becomes «I», has that same irregularity in Subjunctive, for all persons:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Pedirpidopida, pidas, pida, pidamos, pidáis, pidan
Repetirrepitorepita, repitas, repita, repitamos, repitáis, repitan

 

4) Verbs whose «yo» form in Present Indicative has a vowel «O» that becomes «UE», has that same irregularity in Subjunctive, for all persons except for «nosotros» and «vosotros»:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Contarcuentocuente, cuentes, cuente, contemos, contéis, cuenten
Poderpuedopueda, puedas, pueda, podamos, podáis, puedan

 

5) An exception to case 4), «Dormir» and «Morir»: for «nosotros» and «vosotros», «O» becomes «U» (and «O» becomes «UE» for the other persons):

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Dormirduermoduerma, duermas, duerma, durmamos, durmáis, duerman
Morirmueromuera, mueras, muera, muramos, muráis, mueran

 

6) For the verb «Jugar», the «U» becomes «UE» for all persons except «nosotros» and «vosotros», and also the «G» becomes «GU»:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Jugarjuegojuegue, juegues, juegue, juguemos, juguéis, jueguen

 

7) Verbs whose «yo» form in Present Indicative has a «C» that becomes «ZC», present that same irregularity in Subjunctive, for all persons:

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Conocerconozcoconozca, conozcas, conozca, conozcamos, conozcáis, conozcan
Traducirtraduzcotraduzca, traduzcas, traduzca, traduzcamos, traduzcáis, traduzcan

 

8) Verbs whose «yo» form in Present Indicative ends in «GO», form the Present Subjunctive for all persons with the particle  «GA»

 "yo" form in Present IndicativePresent Subjunctive
Hacerhagohaga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hais, hagan
Tenertengotenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, tenis, tengan

 

9) For verbs whose Infinitive ends in «UIR», «I» becomes «Y» :

 "yo" form in Present Indicative"yo" form in Present Indicative
influirinfluyoinfluya, influyas, influya, influyamos, influyáis, influyan
intuirintuyointuya, intuyas, intuya, intuyamos, intuyáis, intuyan




Spelling Changes

Regardless of a verb being regular or irregular, it might also present spelling changes at the end of their stem, for pronunciation reasons.

For example, take the verb «marcar». That verb is fundamentally regular, but it still requires a change for all persons: the «C» must become «QU», so that it keeps the «k» sound we need to have a consistent pronunciation.

Here are examples of spelling changes:

Coger (g → j)coja, cojas, coja, cojamos, cojáis, cojan
Marcar (c → qu)marque, marques, marque, marquemos, marquéis, marquen
Pagar (g → gu)pague, pagues, pague, paguemos, paguéis, paguen
Seguir (gu → g)siga, sigas, siga, sigamos, sigáis, sigan
Utilizar (z → c)utilice, utilices, utilice, utilicemos, utilicéis, utilicen
Vencer (c→ z)venza, venzas, venza, venzamos, venzáis, venzan

 

Very Irregular Verbs

Finally, here are 7 verbs that present important irregularities and don’t follow any of the patterns we studied in this lesson:

DarEstarIr
estévaya
desestésvayas
estévaya
demosestemosvayamos
deisestéisvayáis
denesténvayan

SaberSerVer
sepaseavea
sepasseasveas
sepaseavea
sepamosseamosveamos
sepáisseáisveáis
sepanseanvean

Haber
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan

 

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